Irreversible thermodynamics of triple junctions during the
intergranular void motion under the electromigration forces
Tarik O. OGURTANI, and Ersin Emre OREN
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531, Turkey
A rigorous reformulation of internal entropy production and the rate of entropy flow is developed for multi-component systems consisting of heterophases, interfaces and/or surfaces. The result is a well-posed moving boundary value problem describing the dynamics of curved interfaces and surfaces associated with voids and/or cracks that are intersected by grain boundaries. Extensive computer simulations are performed for void configuration evolution during intergranular motion. In particular we simulate evolution resulting from the action of capillary and electromigration forces in thin film metallic interconnects having a ‘‘bamboo’’ structure, characterized by grain boundaries aligned perpendicular to the free surface of the metallic film interconnects. Analysis of experimental data utilizing previously derived mean time to failure formulas gives consistent values for interface diffusion coefficients and enthalpies of voids.
is the value obtained for voids that form in the interior of the aluminum interconnects without surface contamination. is obtained for those voids that nucleate either at triple junctions or at the grain boundary-technical surface intersections, where the chemical impurities may act as trap centers for hopping vacancies.